Vernon Lee (Violet Paget)



  • 1880 Studies of the Eighteenth Century Italy [#rac1a11e]
    • Studies of_the_Eighteenth_Century_in_Italy

       It was published when Vernon Lee was 24 years old and her first published book. It consists of nine chapters. It is a research on literature, music, and theatrical art of the 18th Italy such as Carlo Goldoni, and masks. The strong influence of Charles Burney can be seen in it. At the beginning of it, Vernon Lee declared that she was not a historian, not a critic on music, but an aesthetician. It was an attempt to shed light on composers and dramatists who were forgotten at her time. Walter Pater and Robert Browning admired this book.

  • 1883 Ottilie: An Eighteenth Century Idyll [#r8e0fe09]
    • Ottilie

       It is a novella consisting of four chapters. Vernon Lee had trouble in finding a publisher to publish this book and T.Fisher Unwin's Pseudonym Library published it. It was dedicated to a German friend of Lee, Karl Hillebrand. It is a fruit of Lee’s study on the 18th Italy.
       It is Lee’s first trial to write a story. The characters represent the Pagets in the 1870s. The relationship between Eugene (elder brother) and Violet (younger sister) was changed into that between elder sister and younger brother. The heroine represents Lee herself. Lee’s friend at that time, Carlo Placci, wrote on Ottilie: "It is perfectly charming and reads so deliciously quaintly and quite carries you off to another life, to another time, to another way of thought. I think I recognized the original of Ottilie and I have the greatest admiration for such sisterly denouement."
       An elder sister Ottilie devotes herself to introvert younger brother Christoph in a little village of Germany. Ottilie has a man with whom she thinks of getting married, but she gives up marriage with him due to Christoph. On the other hand, Christoph leaves Ottilie to enter university, but drops out of it because he can’t blend right in with it and returns home. When at university, he publishes a book of poems and begins to act as a poet. Through the work as a poet, he finds a lover, Wilhelmine, and gets married with her. However, this marriage doesn’t go well, and Christoph goes back to Ottilie.
       It was generally highly valued on the ground that it reminded hot spar resorts in the 18th Germany such as Baden Baden. Peter Gunn wrote on it: "Ottilie is one of the most subtle and successful of Vernon Lee's stories.”

  • 1883年 Belcaro: Being Essays on Sundry Aesthetical Questions
    • Belcaro

       It is the collection of essays and was dedicated to Mary Robinson. It consists of 'The Book and Its Title','The Child in the Vatican','Orpheus and Eurydice','Faustus and Helena','Chapelmaster Kreisler','Cherubino','In Umbria','Ruskinism','A Dialogue on Poetic Morality', and 'Postscript or Apology'.
       In 'The Book and Its Title,' Lee remarked on the origin of the title: "I have been haunted by the remembrance of that winter afternoon, when last we (the readers of this book) were together, on the battlements of Belcaro."
       'The Child in the Vatican' is no doubt derived from Walter Pater’s essay, 'The Child in the House.' It is important when we consider the relationship between white skin and homosexual love. The purpose of an artist is written as follows: "The aim of the artist, of the innumerable artists constituting antique art, must have been nobler: the form for them must have been the mere physical embodiment of the ideas and the presentation of the beautiful idea must have been their real object." And "That the only intrinsic perfection of art is the perfection of form, and that such perfection is obtainable only by boldly altering, or even casting aside, the subject with which this form is only imaginatively, most often arbitrarily connected; and by humbly considering and obeying the inherent necessities of the material in which this form is made visible or audible."
       In 'Orpheus and Eurydice,' Lee wrote: "To appreciate a work of art means, therefore, to appreciate that work of art itself, as distinguished from appreciating something outside it, something accidentally or arbitrarily connected with it" and expressed her idea on aestheticism.
       In 'Chapelmaster Kreisler, she wrote: '"Music is made up of two elements: the intellectual and the sensuous on the one hand, of that which conceived by the mind and perceived by the mind (for our ears perceive only the separate constituent sounds of a tube, but not the tune itself); on the other hand, of that which is produced by the merely physical and appreciated by the merely physical, by the nerves of hearing, through which it may, but only indirectly, after the mind." It is interesting to consider her idea on music. In addition, she wrote: "We forget that music is neither a symbol which can convey an abstract thought, nor a brute cry which can express an instinctive feeling" and pointed out the problems of contemporary music. In 'Cherubino,' she wrote on Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro.
       'In Umbria' discusses Italian painters such as Correggio and Perugino and states that an artist must give viewers possibility for imagination. In the latter part, she argued the superiority of poetry.
       As to 'In Ruskinism,' see John Ruskin.
       In ‘A Dialogue on Poetic Morality,' Baldwin, a mouthpiece of Vernon Lee, says: "The man who creates good is the one who not merely removes pain, but adds pleasure to our lives."
       This is an important book to show the shift of Lee’s interests from the study of history to that of aesthetics. Her idea on art which can be known from this book is strongly influenced by that of Walter Pater. At this point, Lee was inclined to 'art for art's sake' while she was critical of John Ruskin’s ‘art for life’s sake’ in 'Ruskinism.'

  • 1884 The Countess of Albany
    •  It is a story of Louise of Stolberg, who got married with Count Albany at the age of 19 in 1772. The marriage was miserable and she had affair with Alfieri, a poet.

  • 1887 Juvenilia:Being a Second Series of Essays on Sundry Aesthetic Questions
    • Juvenilia

       It is a sequel to Belcaro and consists of 'The Immortality of the Maestro Galuppi','Perigot','Lambard Colour Studies', 'Don Juan (con Stenterello)','Signor Curiazio' 'Christkindchen', and 'Epilogue.' 'Signor Curiazio' argues Wagner centering on Tristan and Isolde.
       Stefano Evangelista argues that this collection of essays shows Lee’s conversion from aestheticism derived from Walter Pater. Conversely, Pater thought of the ethical elements of this book as being dangerous.
       The colour Lee loved most is white and white is the important keyword for aesthetics. In 'Christkindchen,' there is an expression: "all those gods, all those goddesses, and nymphs, and heroes, all that nude and white and ice-cold world, seemed to seek me with their blank, white glance, smiling with the faint ad ironical smile that means."
       Ian Small summarizes Lee’s theory of creation and criticism found in this book: "Vernon Lee asserted that Associationism described the basis of all mental activity and thus provided a key to understanding both critical and creative activities. It followed, then, that the processes by which the spectator perceives and responds to a work of art were of precisely the same order, and thus of the same status, as the process involved in its creation." According to Small, Lee’s theory on the relationship between creation and criticism is similar to that of Oscar Wilde: Wilde claimed that the highest criticism is more creative than creation. ('The Critic as Artist') (Ian Small, Conditions for Criticism, PP.86~87.)

  • 1890 Hauntings: Fantastic Stories
    • Hauntings

       Lee’s representative book of fantastic stories. It includes 'Amour Dure','Dionea','Oke of Okehurst', and 'A Wicked Voice.' In the preface to this book, Lee declared that she didn’t believe in ghosts. She wrote: "They exist, these ghosts, only in our minds, in the minds of those dead folks;.....They are things of the imagination, born there, bred there, sprung from the strange co-nfused heaps, half-rubbish, half-treasure, which lie in our fancy, heaps of half-faded recollections, of fragmentary vivid impressions, litter of multi-coloured tatters.....That is the thing―the Past, the more or less remote Past, of which the prose is clean obliterated by distance―that is the place to get our ghosts from."
       All of the four stories are ghost stories and all of them come from the past. See here.

  • 1894 Althea: Dialogues on Aspirations and Duties
    • Althea

       It is a sequel to Baldwin published in 1886. It is a collection of dialogues between Baldwin and Althea. It consists of 'The Value of the Individual','Orpheus in Rome','On Friendship','About the Social Question', and 'The Spiritual Life', and 'The Use of the Soul'.
       According to Vineta Colby, Althea is a woman with the classical beauty like Milo de Venus and with Rousseau-like natural beauty and an ideal partner of Baldwin. Colby adds that Donna Maria, who often agrees with Baldwin, is modelled on Maria Pasolini or Maria Gamba. Carlo is modelled on Carlo Placci. Signora Elena is modelled on Baroness Elena Cini, a life-long friend of Lee. Boris, a young Russian, is modelled on Peter Boutourline, a poet. Thus, the speakers in the dialogue are modelled on friends of Lee.
       In a letter to her mother, Lee wrote: "It is far the most important book I have so far written, and a great, immeasurable advance on Baldwin."

  • 1895年 Renaissance Fancies and Studies Being a Sequel to Euphorion
    • Renaissance Fancies

       It is a collection of essays on art and a sequel to Euphorion. It consists of 'Preface','The Love of the Saints','The Imaginative Art of the Renaissance','Tuscan Sculpture','A Seeker of Pagan Perfection, Being the Life pf Domenico Neroni, Pictor Sacrilegus,' and 'Valedictory.'
       'The Love of the Saints' shows the influence of Walter Pater in that Lee starts consideration from the 12th century. For example, there is a passage in it: "There is in the history of every art....a moment when, for one reason or other, that art begins to come to the fore, to bestir itself. The circumstances of the nation and time make this art materially advantageous or spiritually attractive." In addition, she refers to St.Francis many times. Peter Gunn points out that this book shows Lee’s "brilliance of her historical intuition."
       'Imaginative Art of the Renaissance' starts with the consideration of paintings made between the 13th and 14th century including Giotto, Uccello, Ghirlandaio, and Botticelli. For example, Lee wrote: "one sort of art which, beyond or independent of the charm of visible beauty, possesses a charm that acts directly upon the imagination. Such charm, or at least such interest, may be defined as the literary element in art." In the latter part, she argued the images of the Virgin in the 16th century.
       'Tuscan Sculpture' took up sculptures in ancient Greece, those in middle-aged Italy and those in the Renaissance, and the relationships among them. As for sculptures in ancient Greece, she wrote: "The Greek, as a result, perceived form not as an appearance, but as a reality; saw with the eye the complexities of projection and depression perceivable by the hand."
       In 'A Seeker of Pagan Perfection,' she wrote on Domenico Neroni.
       In the last chapter 'Valedictory,' she stated the problem of the past and the relationship between art and science. For example, she asserted: "Now the Past―the joys and sufferings of the men long dead, their efforts, ideals, emotions, nay, their very sensations and temperaments as registered in words or expressed in art, are but another side of the universe, of that universal life, to participate ever deeper in which is the condition of our strength and serenity, the imperious necessity of our ever giving, ever taking soul.” In it, she says farewell to the dream she held in her younger ages to be a historian or philosopher and declared farewell to Walter Pater.

  • 1897 Limbo and Other Lessons
    • Limbo

       It is a collection of essays and consists of 'Limbo','In Praise of Old Houses','The Lie of the Land','Tuscan Midsummer Magic','On Modern Traveling','Old Italian Gardens', and 'About Leisure.' 'In Praise of Old Houses' and 'The Lie of the Land' are important essays in considering Vernon Lee’s sense of history and that of ‘genius loci.’ 'On Modern Traveling' is an essay on travel which was accelerated by trains.

  • 1899 Genius Loci: Notes on Places
    • Genius Loci

       A book of travel. It is a collection of impressions Lee had when she visited Augsburg, (‘Augsburg’), Tuscany (‘Holy Week in Tuscany’)、Touraine(‘In Touraine’)、Siena (‘Siena and Simon Martini’)、Mantua (‘The Lakes of Mantua’) and other places. The title ‘Genius Loci’ is a Latin expression which signifies atmosphere and state the history and memories accumulated in lands or places. This is one of the key words to understand Lee’s works. In the preface, Lee wrote that people call “the highest gifts of our human affections” they receive from “impersonal reality” genius loci and that “The Genius Loci, like all worthy divinities, is of the substance of our heart and mind, a spiritual reality."
       In addition, Lee argued: "For journeying with a goal may be the very best journeying" (P.204.) and called love for travel ‘amours de voyage’ writing "Amours de voyage I have allowed myself to call them, as distinguished from the love we may have for localities wherein our everyday lot is cast."(P.203.) As for the arts of Northern and Southern Europe, she stated: "And one understands that all art, and all civilisation which had beauty, arose originally in such fortunate climates―Greece, Syria, Southern Italy, where winter is a word, and the commonest objects are as lovely as the rarest."(P.197.)
       In 'Among the Marble Mountains,' Lee referred to Carrara, a mountain where marble could be obtained, and criticized against modern sculpture calling them "dead and dreary."
       In 'The Epitaphs at Detwang,' Lee wrote that she likes seeing cemeteries and as for the reason, she wrote: "My fondness for churchyards, therefore, does not depend upon their inmates being dead, but rather on their having been alive."
       In 'The Lion of St Mark's and Admiral Morosini,' she discussed the lion with wings, a symbol of Venetia.
       In 'The South,' she wrote on the southern Europe including Greece and Italy and it is interesting to understand Lee’s ideas of the contrast between the northern and southern Europe.

  • 1900 A Child in the Vatican
    •  The title is borrowed from Walter Pater’s ‘A Child in the House’ and later it was included in Belcaro.
       It is a short story to express Lee’s ideas on art through the eyes of a child who visited Vatican and saw sculptures there. While Vatican and the sculptures there symbolizes oldness in this story, the child symbolizes modernness, or, in other words, the 19th century, and comparing them is the aim of this work. Comparing them, Lee wrote:
       "For, strange as it may seem, this clear and simple art of sculpture, born when the world was young and had not yet learned to think and talk in symbolical riddles, this apparently so outspoken art is, to the childish soul of our days, the most silent art of any. To the child, the modern child, it is speechless; it knows not a word of the language understood by the child’s fancy. For this fancy language of our modern child is the language of color, of movement, of sound, of suggestion, of all the broken words of modern thought and feeling: and the statue has none of these. …in these vague, white things, with their rounded white cheek, and clotted white hair, with their fold of white drapery about them, the child recognizes nothing: men? women? it does not ask: for it, they are mere things, figures cut out of stone. "

  • 1901 In Umbria: A Study of Artistic Personality
    •  It is a collection of essays on art with reference to Perugino, an artist of Italian Renaissance. Lee discussed the relationship between artists and art’s viewers through art. It is included in Belcaro.

  • 1901 Chapelmaster Kreisler: A Study of Musical Romanticist
    •  A collection of essays on music. There is a passage as follows: 'art begins only where the physical elements are subjected to an intellectual process, and it exists completely only where they abdicate their independence and become subservient to an intellectual design.' She claims the priority of intelligence over sentiment in creating works of art. It is included in Belcaro.

  • 1904  Hortus Vitae: Essays on the Gardening of Life
    • Hortus Vitae

       A collection 24 essays. They are essays on art, friendship and others. They are: 'Dedication','The Garden of Life‐Introductory','In Praise of Governess','On Going to the Play','Reading Books','Hearing Music','Receiving Letters','New Friends and Old','Other Friendships','A Hotel Sitting-Room','In Praise of Courtship','Knowing One's Mind','Against Talking','In Praise of Silence','The Blame of Portraits','See and Yellow-Interlude','A Stage Jewel','My Bicycle and I','Puzzle of the Past','Making Presents','Going Away',''Coming Back','Losing One's Train','The Hanging Gardens-Valedictory.' It was dedicated to Mme Blanc-Bentzon, a friend of Lee.
       The past played an important role in Vernon Lee’s literature and in considering Lee’s idea on time and the past 'Puzzle of the Past,' 'Coming Back', or 'New Friends and Old' included in this book are very important.
       A portrait was often used as a medium between the past and the present in Lee’s works such as 'Oke of Okehurst.' In considering this problem, 'The Blame of Portraits' in this book is suggestive. Patricia Pulham writes: "Lee's portrait, despite its fixity, is, arguably, always 'alive,' shifting between the image of the artist and of the sitter." (Pulham, 'Duality and Desire in Louis Norbert.' Catherine Maxwell and Patricia Pulham ed. Vernon Lee: Decadence, Ethics, Aesthetics, P.129.)

  • 1906 The Spirit of Rome: Leaves from a Diary
    • The Spirit of Rome

       As the title implies, it is a collection of impressions Lee had in Rome from the spring of 1895 to the spring of 1905. Vernon Lee lived in Rome from the age of 12 through 17. A few years later, Lee, wrote, she revisited Rome and rediscovered the charm of the city. She said that she felt both familiarity and astonishment. She wrote: "What I meet in Rome is Rome itself. Rome is alive (only the more so for its occasional air of death), and one is too busy loving, hating, being harassed or soothed, and ruminating over its contradictions, to remember much of the pains and joys which mere mortals have given one in its presence." She praised Rome because in the city the past and the present coexisted, saying "Decidedly Rome was never more Roman than at present." Furthermore, she wrote: "Rome, as I said before, is all theatre scenes; marvellous coup d'oeils."
       Lee used a bicycle to go around the city. A bicycle was the latest technology at that time.

  • 1908 Gospels of Anarchy and Other Contemporary Studies
    • Gospels of Anarchy

       It is a collection of essays dedicated to H.G. Wells. The main theme is the rivalry between anarchy and law. The first chapter 'Gospel of Anarchy,' she wrote: "what we are suffering from is lack of discrimination, paucity of methods, insufficiency of formulas; and what we want is not less law, but more law." As to modern egoists, she wrote: "the sort of person who tolerates evil for want of the self-discipline and consistency necessary to stop it."
       Other chapters are: 'Emerson as a Teacher of Latter-Day Tendencies','Deterioration of Soul','Tolstoy as Prophet','Tolstoy on Art','Nietzche and the "Will of Power"','Professor James and the "Will to Believe"','Rosny and the French Analytical Novel','The Economic Parasitism of Women','Ruskin as a Reformer','On Modern Utopia', and 'A Postscript About Mr. Wells.'

  • 1909 Laurus Nobilis: Chapters on Art and Life
    • Laurus Nobilis

       A collection of essays on art. Lee considered the influences of art on life. As for the title,she wrote thus: "The Bay Laurel―Laurus Nobilis―for a symbol of all art, all poetry, and all poetic and artistic vision and emotion.....And it (the title of the book) has suggested, I hope, the contents of the following notes; the nature of my attempt to trace the influence which art should have on life." Furthermore, she added: "Beauty, save by a metaphorical application of the word, is not in the least the same thing as Goodness, any more than beauty (despite Keats' famous assertion) is the same thing as Truth. "
       It consists of 'The Use of Beauty','"Nisi Citharam"','Higher Harmones','Beauty and Sanity'(about the function of music),'The Art and the Country'(about Italian cities and arts there),'Art and Usefulness'(about Tolstoy and Ruskin. On the relationship between art and life, there is a passage: "Art is born of the utilities of life; and art is in itself one of life's greatest utilities."), and 'Wasteful Pleasures.'(on spot hunting)For example. Lee wrote on killing animals and masculinity: "Killing animals (and, some persons would add, killing other men) is necessary to keep man manly. And where men are no longer manly they become cruel, not for the sake of the sport or war, but for their lusts and for cruelty's own sake."(P.307.)
       “Sympathy” is one of the important key words for Vernon Lee’s literature, and she wrote on this word: "as the word sympathy is intended to suggest, this subduing and yet liberating, this enlivening and pacifying power of beautiful form over our feelings is exercised only when our feeling enter, and are absorbed into, the form we perceive; so that (very much as in the case of sympathy with human vicissitudes) we participate in the supposed life of the form while in reality lending our life to it." (P.259.) And she wrote: "out of practical utility has arisen the art itself, and the need for it. The attention, the familiarity which made beauty enjoyable has previously made beauty necessary." (P.263.)
       Many descriptions on music can be found in this book. For example: "music should be so far the most really alive of all our modern arts" or "For music is of all arts the one which insists on most co-operation on the part of it votaries." Furthermore, she wrote: "It is no exaggeration to say that in our time it is only artists who get real pleasure out of art, because it is only artists who approach art from the side of work and bring to it work's familiar attention and habitual energy."、or "music is the art which has most share in life and of life, nowadays. It seems probable therefore that its especial mission may be to keep alive in us the feeling and habit of art, and to transmit them back to those arts of visible form to which it owes, perhaps, the training necessary to its own architectural structure and its own colour combinations."

  • 1912 Vital Lies: Studies of Some Varieties of Recent Obscurantism
    • l,Vital Lies

       A collection of essays. The title is derived from Ibsen. The main purpose of this bookis to criticize William James’ "Will to Believe." It consists of three parts: 'First Part: Theoretical Obscurantism', 'Second Part: Applied Obscurantism', and 'Third Part: Epilogue.'
       Vernon Lee wrote on pragmatism as follows: "pragmatism is being employed, as the title of Mr. Peirce's famous article has it, "to make our idea clear." And she wrote on pragmatists: "The Pragmatists have refused to proclaim the value of what is possibly not true, and they have applied themselves to identifying that which possesses value with truth itself."
       Moreover, Lee wrote about unnecessity of pragmatism: "Mankind has always wanted, perhaps always required, and certainly always made itself, a stock of delusions and sophisms, of vital lies or of white lies. Every human being's thought, consciously or unconsciously, tends to accommodate itself to some wish, some use, some habit. Every opinion tends to identify itself with truth. The Will-to-Believe, the Purposive Making of Truth, are unceasingly at work. This is the reason why we have no use for the kind of Pragmatism which teaches us the testing of truth by its utility, the identification of truth with opinion, which preaches this universal and ineradicable vice of all our thinking as a self-righteous, a self-assertive virtue." (Vital Lies, 33.)
       Lee wrote on the necessity of 'Vital Lies' thus: "fallacies, mistakes, nay falsehoods, may sometimes have remarkably life-preserving and life-improving effects, in other words that there exists, alongside of vital truths, a by no means negligible category of vital lies." (P.99.)

  • 1914 Louis Norbert: A Twofold Romance
    •  Vernon Lee’s last novel. The title was derived from Balzac’s Louis Lambert(1832).

      Louis Norbert

       This novel consists mainly of two parts: in one, two characters in the present, Lady Venetia Hammond and Schmidt, an archaeologist, examine the identity of Louis Norbert whose name is inscribed in a memorial tablet, and the other is a story of Louis Norbert and his lover, Artemisia del Valore, a poet. Most of the novel consists of letters.
       Lady Venetia supposes that Louis Norbert is the son of Louis ⅩⅣ and Marie Mancini but the archaeologist refutes it.
       To “invent” the past is one of the themes of this novel. Lady Venetia( the mouthpiece of Vernon Lee) “invent” the image of Norbert by way of impressions she had from the portrait. In contrast, the archaeologist (who symbolizes the exactness of science, which is often negatively described in Lee’s works) negates the method of Venetia.
      This novel has some characteristics unique to Vernon Lee’s works: for example, a portrait plays an important role, and 'ghost room'(the room where Lady Venetia feels the ghost of Louis Norbert)is the key to the story. It is an important work to consider Lee’s idea of 'genius loci.'
       Some critics say that A・S・Byatt’s novel Possession is under the influence of Louis Norbert.

  • 1915 The Ballet of the Nations: A Present Day Morality
    • The Ballet of the Nations

       A drama which was later included in The Satan the Waster. Satan and Death, ballet master, produced dansemacabre. Human passion, Sin、Idealism、Heroism and others forms a band and dance the dance of massacre at 'Theatre of the West.'
       It was made with a view to criticizing the First World War. Lee didn’t describe Germany as evil, she was criticized by the British people.

  • 1925 Proteus or The Future of Intelligence
    •  A collection of essays consisting of 'Intelligence and Proteus','Proteus and Ethics',Proteus and Aesthetics','Proteus and Intellectual Manners', and 'Uses and Abuses.' Proteus is a deity of Greek myth and has the power of prediction and transforming his body. Vernon Lee regarded Proteus as one of the most interesting deities in the Greek myth and argued: "Proteus, in my mythology, is the mysterious whole which we know must exist, but know not how to descry: Reality." In the latter part, she considered “amateurishness.” As for intelligence, she wrote: "Intelligence is the living, changing mass of unprofessional thought, the averaged, habitual thought of the majority of us."

  • 1926 The Poet's Eye
    •  It is a collection of essays and was written as one of the series The Hogarth Essays. Comparing the techniques of prose and poem, Lee admitted she couldn’t write prose. As for Lee’s idea on difference between prose and poem, Peter Gunn states as follows: "Proses, she (Lee) declares, was the vehicle for the expressing of fact and logical connexions between facts; poetry, being on 'the yon side of good and evil,' plays directly on our emotions." (Peter Gunn, Vernon Lee, P.223.)

  • 1927 For Maurice: Five Unlikely Stories
    •  A collection of fantastic stories. It was written for Maurice Baring, one of Lee’s readers. It includes ’The Gods and the Ritter Tanhuser(1913),’ Marsyas in Flanders'(1900), 'The Virgin of the Seven Daggers'(1889), 'Winthrop's Adventure'(1881), and 'The Doll'(1899). See here.

  • 1906 The Life of Saint Mary Magdalen
    •  It is a biography of Saint Mary Magdalen written in the 14th century Italy by unknown author. Valentina Hawtrey translated the Italian version into English and Vernon Lee put the preface into it. Lee’s ideas on the Virgin Mary can be found in it.

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